Autism Studies

Aluminium in brain tissue in autism. Matthew Mold, Dorcas Umar, Andrew King, Christopher Exley. 2018

While aluminium was imaged associated with neurones it appeared to be present intracellularly in microglia-like cells and other inflammatory non-neuronal cells in the meninges, vasculature, grey and white matter. The pre-eminence of intracellular aluminium associated with nonneuronal cells was a standout observation in autism brain tissue and may offer clues as to both the origin of the brain aluminium as well as a putative role in autism spectrum disorder.

“Immunoexcitotoxicity as the central mechanism of etiopathology and treatment of autism spectrum disorders: A possible role of fluoride and aluminum” Anna Strunecka, Russell L. Blaylock, Jiri Patocka, and Otakar Strunecky. 2018

“We demonstrate that fluoride and aluminum (Al3+) can exacerbate the pathological problems by worsening excitotoxicity and inflammation. While Al3+ appears among the key suspicious factors of ASD, fluoride is rarely recognized as a causative culprit. A long-term burden of these ubiquitous toxins has several health effects with a striking resemblance to the symptoms of ASD.”

Association Between Influenza Infection and Vaccination During Pregnancy and Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorder. Ousseny Zerbo, PhD, et al. 2017

In trimester-specific analyses, first-trimester influenza vaccination was the only period associated with increased ASD risk (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.04-1.39). However, this association could be due to chance.

Maternal breastfeeding and autism spectrum disorder in children: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Tseng PT 2017

This meta-analysis provides evidence that breastfeeding (exclusively or including additional supplements) may protect against ASD. Prospective longitudinal research is required to disentangle the complex relationships and to explore potential pathophysiological mechanisms.

“Vaccines are not associated with autism: An evidence-based meta-analysis of case-control and cohort studies” Luke E. Taylor, Amy L. Swerdfeger, Guy D. Eslick. 2014

“Studies were included that looked at either MMR vaccination, cumulative mercury (Hg) or cumulative thimerosal dosage from vaccinations to ensure all proposed causes of ASD or regression were investigated.”

[Editor’s note: Please take special note that only MMR vaccine, and or cumulative mercury exposure, was investigated before coming to the conclusion that ALL VACCINES are not associated with Autism. Please see further articles here.]

“Transcriptomic analyses of neurotoxic effects in mouse brain after intermittent neonatal administration of thimerosal.” Li X,Qu F,Xie W, et al. 2014

“Thimerosal-treated mice exhibited neural development delay, social interaction deficiency, and inclination of depression.”

“Methodological Issues and Evidence of Malfeasance in Research Purporting to Show Thimerosal in Vaccines Is Safe”. Brian Hooker, et al. 2014

Assessment of Infantile Mineral Imbalances in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). Hiroshi Yasuda and Toyoharu Tsutsui. 2013.

These findings suggest that infantile zinc- and magnesium-deficiency and/or toxic metal burdens may be critical and induce epigenetic alterations in the genes and genetic regulation mechanisms of neurodevelopment in the autistic children, and demonstrate that a time factor “infantile window” is also critical for neurodevelopment and probably for therapy.

“Maternal immune activation causes age and region-specific changes in brain cytokines in offspring throughout development.” Garay, Paula A. Hsiao, Elaine Y. Patterson, Paul H. McAllister, A K. Brain, behavior, and immunity 2013; 31():54-68 PubMed Link 

“Together, these data indicate that MIA leads to long-lasting, region-specific changes in brain cytokines in offspring—similar to those reported for ASD and SZ—that may alter CNS development and behavior.”

Toxic Metals and Essential Elements in Hair and Severity of Symptoms among Children with Autism. Eleonor BLAUROCK-BUSCH. 2012

Our data supports the historic evidence that heavy metals play a role in the development of ASD. In combination with an inadequate nutritional status the toxic effect of metals increase along with the severity of symptoms.

“A positive association found between autism prevalence and childhood vaccination uptake across the U.S. population”. Delong G. 2011

“A positive and statistically significant relationship was found: The higher the proportion of children receiving recommended vaccinations, the higher was the prevalence of AUT or SLI. A 1% increase in vaccination was associated with an additional 680 children having AUT or SLI.”

Hepatitis B vaccination of male neonates and autism diagnosis, NHIS 1997-2002″. Gallagher CM, Goodman MS. 2010

“Findings suggest that U.S. male neonates vaccinated with the hepatitis B vaccine prior to 1999 (from vaccination record) had a threefold higher risk for parental report of autism diagnosis compared to boys not vaccinated as neonates during that same time period.”

“Immune-glutamatergic dysfunction as a central mechanism of the autism spectrum disorders”. Blaylock RL, Strunecka A. 2009

“We suggest that environmental and dietary excitotoxins, mercury, fluoride, and aluminum can exacerbate the pathological and clinical problems by worsening excitotoxicity and by microglial priming.”

“What is regressive autism and why does it occur? Is it the consequence of multi-systemic dysfunction affecting the elimination of heavy metals and the ability to regulate neural temperature?” Graham E. Ewing. 2009

This article explores the issues and concludes that sensory dysfunction and systemic failure, manifested as autism, is the inevitable consequence arising from subtle DNA alteration and consequently from the overuse of vaccines.

“Acetaminophen (paracetamol) use, measles-mumps-rubella vaccination, and autistic disorder: the results of a parent survey.” Schultz ST, et al. 2008

“Acetaminophen use after measles-mumps-rubella vaccination was significantly associated with autistic disorder when considering children 5 years of age or less (OR 6.11, 95% CI 1.42-26.3), after limiting cases to children with regression in development (OR 3.97, 95% CI 1.11-14.3), and when considering only children who had post-vaccination sequelae (OR 8.23, 95% CI 1.56-43.3), adjusting for age, gender, mother’s ethnicity, and the presence of illness concurrent with measles-mumps-rubella vaccination.”

“Maternal Immune Activation Alters Fetal Brain Development through Interleukin-6”. Stephen E. P. Smith, Jennifer Li, Krassimira Garbett, Karoly Mirnics, and Paul H. Patterson. 2007

A prospective study of thimerosal-containing Rho(D)-immune globulin administration as a risk factor for autistic disorders. Geier DA, Geier MR. 2007

“Children with ASDs (28.30%) were significantly more likely (odds ratio 2.35, 95% confidence interval 1.17-4.52, p < 0.01) to have Rh-negative mothers than controls (14.36%). Each ASD patient’s mother was determined to have been administered a TCR during her pregnancy.”

Environmental mercury release, special education rates, and autism disorder: an ecological study of Texas, Raymond F. Palmera, 2006

On average, for each 1000 lb of environmentally released mercury, there was a 43% increase in the rate of special education services and a 61% increase in the rate of autism. The association between environmentally released mercury and special education rates were fully mediated by increased autism rates. This ecological study suggests the need for further research regarding the association between environmentally released mercury and developmental disorders such as autism. These results have implications for policy planning and cost analysis.

Breastfeeding, infant formula supplementation, and Autistic Disorder: the results of a parent survey. Stephen T Schultz 2006

The results of this preliminary study indicate that children who were not breastfed or were fed infant formula without docosahexaenoic acid/arachidonic acid supplementation were significantly more likely to have autistic disorder.

“Immunological findings in autism”. Cohly HH, Panja A. 2005

“Elevated levels of measles antibodies in children with autism”. Singh VK, Jensen RL. 2003

“Abnormal measles-mumps-rubella antibodies and CNS autoimmunity in children with autism”. Singh VK, et al. 2002

Polio Vaccine

The Introduction of Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis and Oral Polio Vaccine Among Young Infants in an Urban African Community: A Natural Experiment. Mogensen, et al. 2017

Results: Among 3–5-month-old children, having received DTP (±OPV) was associated with a mortality hazard ratio (HR) of 5.00 (95% CI 1.53–16.3) compared with not-yet-DTP-vaccinated children. Differences in background factors did not explain the effect. The negative effect was particularly strong for children who had received DTPonly and no OPV (HR = 10.0 (2.61–38.6)). All-cause infant mortality after 3 months of age increased after the introduction of these vaccines (HR = 2.12 (1.07–4.19)).

Transmission of Imported Vaccine-Derived Poliovirus in an Undervaccinated Community in Minnesota. James P. Alexander, et al. 2008

Oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) has not been used in the United States since 2000. Type 1 vaccine derived poliovirus (VDPV) was identified in September 2005, from an unvaccinated Amish infant hospitalized in Minnesota with severe combined immunodeficiency. An investigation was conducted to determine the source of the virus and its means of transmission.

Some oral poliovirus vaccines were contaminated with infectious SV40 after 1961. Cutrone, R., et al. 2005

These SV40-contaminated vaccines were produced from early 1960s to about 1978 and were used throughout the world. Our findings underscore the potential risks of using primary monkey cells for preparing poliovirus vaccines, because of the possible contamination with SV40 or other monkey viruses, and emphasize the importance of using well-characterized cell substrates that are free from adventitious agents. 

Cancer risk associated with simian virus 40 contaminated polio vaccine. Fisher, et al. 1999

The presence of SV40 in monkey cell cultures used in the preparation of the polio vaccine from 1955 through 1961 is well documented. Investigations have consistently demonstrated the oncogenic behavior of SV40 in animal models. Early epidemiologic studies were inadequate in demonstrating an increase in cancer incidence associated with contaminated vaccine. Recently, investigators have provided persuasive evidence that SV40 is present in human ependymomas, choroid plexus tumors, bone tumors, and mesotheliomas, however, the etiologic role of the virus in tumorigenesis has not been established.

Conclusions: These data suggest that there may be an increased incidence of certain cancers among the 98 million persons exposed to contaminated polio vaccine in the U.S.; further investigations are clearly justified.

Intramuscular Injections within 30 Days of Immunization with Oral Poliovirus Vaccine — A Risk Factor for Vaccine-Associated Paralytic Poliomyelitis, Peter M. Strebel, et al. 1995

Provocation paralysis, previously described only for wild-type poliovirus infection, may rarely occur in a child who receives multiple intramuscular injections shortly after exposure to oral poliovirus vaccine, either as a vaccine recipient or through contact with a recent recipient. This phenomenon may explain the high rate of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis in Romania, where the use of intramuscular injections of antibiotics in infants with febrile illness is common.

MMR

Adverse Events Following Measles, Mumps, and Rubella Vaccine in Adults Reported to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), 2003–2013. Lakshmi Sukumaran, et al. 2015.

Results: During this period, VAERS received 3175 US reports after MMR vaccine in adults. Of these, 168 (5%) were classified as serious, including 7 reports of death. Females accounted for 77% of reports. The most common signs and symptoms for all reports were pyrexia (19%), rash (17%), pain (13%), and arthralgia (13%). We did not detect any new safety findings in empirical Bayesian data mining. We identified 131 reports of MMR vaccine administered to a pregnant woman; the majority of these vaccinations were in the first trimester and in 83 (62%), no AE was reported.

“Acetaminophen (paracetamol) use, measles-mumps-rubella vaccination, and autistic disorder: the results of a parent survey.” Schultz ST, et al. 2008

“Acetaminophen use after measles-mumps-rubella vaccination was significantly associated with autistic disorder when considering children 5 years of age or less (OR 6.11, 95% CI 1.42-26.3), after limiting cases to children with regression in development (OR 3.97, 95% CI 1.11-14.3), and when considering only children who had post-vaccination sequelae (OR 8.23, 95% CI 1.56-43.3), adjusting for age, gender, mother’s ethnicity, and the presence of illness concurrent with measles-mumps-rubella vaccination.”

MMR vaccine and idiopathic thrombocytopaenic purpura. Corri Black. 2003.

This study confirms the increased risk of ITP within 6 weeks after MMR vaccination. However, the attributable risk of ITP within 6 weeks after MMR vaccination is low.

“Elevated levels of measles antibodies in children with autism”. Singh VK, Jensen RL. 2003

“Abnormal measles-mumps-rubella antibodies and CNS autoimmunity in children with autism”. Singh VK, et al. 2002

Comparative Analysis of Titers of Antibody against Measles Virus in Sera of Vaccinated and Naturally Infected Japanese Individuals of Different Age Groups. Masae Itoh, et al. 2002.

This result suggests that the current vaccine strain would be suitable to elicit protection against types D3 and D5, as long as viral antigenicity is concerned. However, when compared at given hemagglutination inhibition titers, NT antibody titers of vaccinees were 21.1 to 23.2 times lower than those of naturally infected individuals, suggesting a qualitative difference(s) of anti-MV antibodies between the two groups. It should be emphasized that protective immunity induced by the one-dose vaccination currently implemented in Japan may not be strong enough to ensure lifelong immunity. A two-dose vaccination program with higher vaccination coverage needs to be considered in order to effectively control measles in Japan.

Detection and Sequencing of Measles Virus from Peripheral Mononuclear Cells from Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Autism. HISASHI KAWASHIMA, MD et al. 2000

Crohn’s Disease: Pathogenesis and Persistent Measles Virus Infection. ANDREW J. WAKEFIELD, et al. 1995

 

Dtap/Tdap

Evidence of Increase in Mortality After the Introduction of Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine to Children Aged 6-35 Months in Guinea-Bissau: A Time for Reflection? Aaby, Peter, et al. 2018

Although having better nutritional status and being protected against three infections, 6-35 months old DTP-vaccinated children tended to have higher mortality than DTP-unvaccinated children. All studies of the introduction of DTP have found increased overall mortality.

The Introduction of Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis and Oral Polio Vaccine Among Young Infants in an Urban African Community: A Natural Experiment. Mogensen, et al. 2017

Results: Among 3–5-month-old children, having received DTP (±OPV) was associated with a mortality hazard ratio (HR) of 5.00 (95% CI 1.53–16.3) compared with not-yet-DTP-vaccinated children. Differences in background factors did not explain the effect. The negative effect was particularly strong for children who had received DTPonly and no OPV (HR = 10.0 (2.61–38.6)). All-cause infant mortality after 3 months of age increased after the introduction of these vaccines (HR = 2.12 (1.07–4.19)).

Asymptomatic transmission and the resurgence of Bordetella pertussis. Benjamin M. Althouse. 2015

Although a clear role for the previously suggested mechanisms still exists, asymptomatic transmission is the most parsimonious explanation for many of the observations surrounding the resurgence of B. pertussis in the US and UK.

Acellular pertussis vaccines protect against disease but fail to prevent infection and transmission in a nonhuman primate model. Jason M. Warfel, et al. 2013

Baboons vaccinated with aP were protected from severe pertussis-associated symptoms but not from colonization, did not clear the infection faster than naïve animals, and readily transmitted B. pertussis to unvaccinated contacts. 

Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis after TdaP–IPV booster vaccination: cause or coincidence? Caroline Hofmann, et al. 2011.

We report about a 15-year-old female patient who was diagnosed with anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis after receiving a booster vaccination against tetanus/diphtheria/ pertussis and polio (TdaP-IPV).

Delay in diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus vaccination is associated with a reduced risk of childhood asthma. Kara L. McDonald, MSc, et al. 2008.

We found a negative association between delay in administration of the first dose of whole-cell DPT immunization in childhood and the development of asthma; the association was greater with delays in all of the first 3 doses. The mechanism for this phenomenon requires further research.

FATAL ANAPHYLACTIC SHOCK: Occurrence in Identical Twins Following Second Injection of Diphtheria Toxoid and Pertussis Antigen. Jacob Werne, MD, Irene Garrow, MD. 1946

Deaths related to the injection of foreign protein in man are fortunately few. The exact number of such occurrences is difficult to estimate from the available literature. By 1942 Kojis1 was able to find 61 such deaths, and he added 4 more from the Willard Parker Hospital. The most complete and most recent study of necropsies was made by Vance and Strassmann,2 who added 7 autopsy studies from the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner to 19 taken from the literature. Park3 in 1932 recorded the mortality from serum anaphylaxis as 0.002 per cent. Kojis1 in 1942 found it to be just under 0.1 per cent in a series of 6,211 subjects treated for various infections. Rutstein and his associates,4 in their analysis of pneumonia cases treated with antipneumococcus horse serum, found the mortality to be 0.45 per cent. In only 1 or possibly 2

Influenza

Association Between Influenza Infection and Vaccination During Pregnancy and Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorder. Ousseny Zerbo, PhD, et al. 2017

In trimester-specific analyses, first-trimester influenza vaccination was the only period associated with increased ASD risk (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.04-1.39). However, this association could be due to chance.

Varicella/Chicken Pox

History of chickenpox in glioma risk: a report from the glioma international case–control study (GICC). E. Susan Amirian, et al. 2016.

Here, we utilized the GICC data to confirm the previously reported associations between history of chickenpox and glioma risk in one of the largest studies to date on this topic. Using two-stage random-effects restricted maximum likelihood modeling, we found that a positive history of chickenpox was associated with a 21% lower glioma risk, adjusting for age and sex (95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.65–0.96). Furthermore, the protective effect of chickenpox was stronger for high-grade gliomas. Our study provides additional evidence that the observed protective effect of chickenpox against glioma is unlikely to be coincidental.

Transmission of varicella vaccine virus to a non-family member in China. Lin Gan, et al. 2011.

Hep B

Premature Puberty and Thimerosal-Containing Hepatitis B Vaccination: A Case-Control Study in the Vaccine Safety Datalink. Geier, et al. 2018

The results of this study show a dose-dependent association between increasing organic Hg exposure from Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccines administered within the first six months of life and the long-term risk of the child being diagnosed with premature puberty.

Hepatitis B vaccination of male neonates and autism diagnosis, NHIS 1997-2002. Gallagher, et al. 2010.

Findings suggest that U.S. male neonates vaccinated with thehepatitis B vaccineprior to 1999 (from vaccination record) had a threefold higher risk for parental report ofautismdiagnosis compared to boys not vaccinated as neonates during that same time period. Nonwhite boys bore a greater risk.

Adverse events associated with hepatitis B vaccine in U.S. children less than six years of age, 1993 and 1994. Fisher, et al. 2001

Controlling for age, race, and gender simultaneously in the 1994 NHIS, hepatitis B vaccine was found to be associated with prevalent arthritis [odds ratio (OR) = 5.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.05-33.14], incident acute ear infections (OR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.00-2.58), and incident pharyngitis/nasopharyngitis (OR = 1.41, 95% CI = 0.95-2.09).

Recombinant hepatitis B vaccine and the risk of multiple sclerosis: A Prospective Study. Miguel A. Hernán, et al. 2004

Conclusions: These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that immunization with the recombinant hepatitis B vaccine is associated with an increased risk of MS, and challenge the idea that the relation between hepatitis B vaccination and risk of MS is well understood.

Gardasil

A lowered probability of pregnancy in females in the USA aged 25–29 who received a human papillomavirus vaccine injection. Gayle DeLong. 2018.

Shortly after the vaccine was licensed, several reports of recipients experiencing primary ovarian failure emerged. This study analyzed information gathered in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, which represented 8 million 25-to-29-year-old women residing in the United States between 2007 and 2014. Approximately 60% of women who did not receive the HPV vaccine had been pregnant at least once, whereas only 35% of women who were exposed to the vaccine had conceived. 

SIDS Studies

“Infanrix hexa and sudden death: a review of the periodic safety update reports submitted to the European Medicines Agency” Jacob Puliyel, C Sathyamala. 2017

“The number of observed deaths soon after vaccination among children older than one year was significantly higher than that expected by chance once the deleted deaths were restored and included in the analysis.”

Gut microbiota and immunity: possible role in sudden infant death syndrome. Paul N. Goldwater. 2015.

The aims of the review are to explore (1) the role of the gut microbiome in relation to the developmentally critical period in which most SIDS cases occur; (2) the mechanisms by which the gut microbiome might induce inflammation resulting in transit of bacteria from the lumen into the bloodstream; and (3) assessment of the clinical, physiological, pathological, and microbiological evidence for bacteremia leading to the final events in SIDS pathogenesis.

“DPT immunization and SIDS”. Kalyani Srinivas, G. Preeti, Sujatha Pasula. 2015

“It is found that mortality with SIDS in the period zero to three days following DTP to be 6.9 times that in the period beginning 30 days after immunization (95 per cent confidence interval, 1.4 to 28)”

The Initial Common Pathway of Inflammation, Disease, and Sudden Death. Robert M. Davidson and Stephanie Seneff 2012.

Based on extensive review of the scientific literature, we propose in this paper that any exogenous substance that lowers the ZP, and/or introduces polycationic kosmotropic interfacial water stress, and/or lowers the bio-sulfate level, increases the likelihood of sudden death, by triggering a cascade of events in the pathogenesis of inflammation, allergy, infection, thrombosis, hemorrhage, ischemia, infarction, anaphylaxis, disease, and death. Inflammation, allergy, anaphylaxis, and serum sickness should be redefined to reflect this reality. A novel hypothesis as to the etiology of sudden death syndrome is presented which looks specifically at the very earliest events in the pathophysiology of SDS. In most instances, introduction of polycationic surfactants into our bloodstream causes acute interfacial water stress, lowering of ZP, lowering of pH, elevation of viscosity, and electrohemorheologic—hemodynamic derangement. This triggers a cascade of immunologic and hemostatic events, leading inexorably to tissue hypoperfusion, cellular anoxia, seizures, arrhythmias, infarctions, cardiovascular collapse, and death.

“Re-analyses of case-control studies examining the temporal association between sudden infant death syndrome and vaccination”. Ronny Kuhnert, et al. 2012 PDF here Reanalysis of case-control studies examining

“There is no increased or reduced risk of sudden infant death during the period after the vaccination. The previously reported protective effect seen in case control studies is based on the inclusion of unvaccinated cases.”

[Editor’s Note: This study erases any protective effect of vaccines regarding SIDS, because it only came to that conclusion by including a large majority of unvaccinated SIDS cases who died before reaching 2 months old, and thus died before they were eligible for vaccines. A vaccine cannot prevent a death that occurs before a vaccine would be routinely given. However, of infants who lived past 2 months old, they were 4 times more likely to be vaccinated prior to their death. Further research is needed to full understand the mechanism of SIDS, misdiagnosis, and the contributions of vaccines. Explore SIDS here.]

“Sudden twin infant death on the same day: a case report and review of the literature” Huang, et. al. 2013 e.Huang et Twins

[Editors note: Ten week old twin infants received the first doses of oral polio and diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus (DPT) vaccines 60 days after birth. So day 60 they were vaccinated and they died at 10 weeks, or day 70. Ten days after vaccination, these twins died simultaneously on the same night.]

Sudden Unexpected Deaths and Vaccinations during the First Two Years of Life in Italy: A Case Series Study. Giuseppe Traversa, Stefania Spila-Alegiani, et. al. 2011.

Among the 604 infants who died of SUD, 244 (40%) had received at least one vaccination. Four deaths occurred within two days from vaccination with the hexavalent vaccines (RR = 1.5; 95% CI 0.6 to 4.2). The RRs for the risk periods 0–7 and 0–14 were 2.0 (95% CI 1.2 to 3.5) and 1.5 (95% CI 0.9 to 2.4). The increased risk was limited to the first dose (RR = 2.2; 95% CI 1.1 to 4.4), whereas no increase was observed for the second and third doses combined.

Sudden infant death syndrome: a case report in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Dragan Ćajić. 2010

A previously healthy 3 months old, white male infant was found dead after being placed to sleep in the prone position. The features of this case report closely parallel the classical features of SIDS cited in the world literature.

[Editors note: He was vaccinated 5 days before death. I have yet to find a case report of an infant suddenly dying where no cause is found, without being recently vaccinated.]

β-Tryptase and quantitative mast-cell increase in a sudden infant death following hexavalent immunization. StefanoD’Errico MargheritaNeri, et al. 2008.

“A fatal case of a 3-month-old female infant, who died within 24 h of vaccination with hexavalent vaccine is presented. Clinical data, post-mortem findings (acute pulmonary oedema, acute pulmonary emphysema), quali-quantitative data collected from immunohistochemical staining (degranulating mast cells) and laboratory analysis with a high level of β-tryptase in serum, 43.3 μg/l, allows us to conclude that acute respiratory failure likely due to post hexavalent immunization-related shock was the cause of death.”

Pulmonary immunopathology of sudden infant death syndrome. W.J.HowatBSc, et al. 2003

The results showed three times more eosinophils in the lungs of infants who died of SIDS (27 61 vs 7·91 [99% Cl 1 76-5 87] cells/mm2 for parenchyma) accompanied by increased T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes. These findings provide evidence for an abnormal T lymphocyte-mediated pulmonary inflammatory response in SIDS. Products of eosinophil degranulation can cause epithelial damage and pulmonary oedema, which could cause the respiratory obstruction and hypoxia associated with SIDS.

Involvement of mast cells in sudden infant death syndrome. Platt, MD, et al. 1994

An infant with SIDS had a 20-fold higher chance of having an elevated tryptase level compared with a control infant. Recognition of this pathway as operative in SIDS should facilitate a more precise identification of the allergens involved, the processes leading to mast cell activation, and procedures to identify those infants at risk for anaphylaxis, and should, in time, lead to better therapeutic interventions aimed at preventing this specific cause of SIDS. 

“Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Immunization and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome”.  ALEXANDER M. WALKER, MD, DRPH, HERSHEL JICK, MD, DAVID R. PERERA, MD, MPH, ROBERT S. THOMPSON, MD, AND THOMAS A. KNAUSS, MD, PHD. 1987

“Focusing on very narrow time intervals following immunization, we found the SIDS mortality rate in the period zero to three days following DTP to be 7.3 times that in the period beginning 30 days after immunization (95 per cent confidence interval, 1.7 to 31).”

a- and B-Tryptase Levels in Near-Miss Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) Patients. AD Hogan, MD. 

Further evaluation of near-miss SIDS infants with abnormal levels of a and b-tryptase could help to discern which infants are at increased risk of sudden infant death syndrome, and what might cause mast cell activation.

Allergy / Adverse Event Studies

Evidence of Increase in Mortality After the Introduction of Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine to Children Aged 6-35 Months in Guinea-Bissau: A Time for Reflection? Aaby, Peter, et al. 2018

Although having better nutritional status and being protected against three infections, 6-35 months old DTP-vaccinated children tended to have higher mortality than DTP-unvaccinated children. All studies of the introduction of DTP have found increased overall mortality.

A lowered probability of pregnancy in females in the USA aged 25-29 who received a human papillomavirus vaccine injection. DeLong, Gayle. 2018

Results suggest that females who received the HPV shot were less likely to have ever been pregnant than women in the same age group who did not receive the shot. If 100% of females in this study had received the HPV vaccine, data suggest the number of women having ever conceived would have fallen by 2 million. Further study into the influence of HPV vaccine on fertility is thus warranted.

Childhood vaccine status and correlation with common nonvaccine‐preventable illnesses, Michelle M. Anderson DNP, FNP, 2017.

“Fully immunized group had significantly more ear infections than partial or unimmunized. The unimmunized group had significantly more colds and flu.”

Pilot comparative study on the health of vaccinated and unvaccinated 6- to 12-year-old U.S. children, Anthony Mawson, 2017

“The vaccinated were less likely than the unvaccinated to have been diagnosed with chickenpox and pertussis, but more likely to have been diagnosed with pneumonia, otitis media, allergies and NDD. After adjustment, vaccination, male gender, and preterm birth remained significantly associated with NDD. However, in a final adjusted model with interaction, vaccination but not preterm birth remained associated with NDD, while the interaction of preterm birth and vaccination was associated with a 6.6-fold increased odds of NDD (95% CI: 2.8, 15.5). In conclusion, vaccinated homeschool children were found to have a higher rate of allergies and NDD than unvaccinated homeschool children.”

History of chickenpox in glioma risk: a report from the glioma international case–control study (GICC). E. Susan Amirian, et al. 2016.

Here, we utilized the GICC data to confirm the previously reported associations between history of chickenpox and glioma risk in one of the largest studies to date on this topic. Using two-stage random-effects restricted maximum likelihood modeling, we found that a positive history of chickenpox was associated with a 21% lower glioma risk, adjusting for age and sex (95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.65–0.96). Furthermore, the protective effect of chickenpox was stronger for high-grade gliomas. Our study provides additional evidence that the observed protective effect of chickenpox against glioma is unlikely to be coincidental.

Who is unlikely to report adverse events after vaccinations to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS)? McNeil MM, et al. 2013

The percentage of HCP (Healthcare Providers) aware of VAERS (71%) varied by occupation and primary care practice area. About 37% of HCP had identified at least one AEFI with only 17% of these indicating that they had ever reported to VAERS. 

[editors note: 17% OF THE 37% had ever reported to VAERS.]

Increased Risk of Noninfluenza Respiratory Virus Infections Associated With Receipt of Inactivated Influenza Vaccine.  Benjamin J. Cowling, et. al. 2012

“We randomized 115 children to trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) or placebo. Over the following 9 months, TIV recipients had an increased risk of virologically-confirmed non-influenza infections (relative risk: 4.40; 95% confidence interval: 1.31-14.8). Being protected against influenza, TIV recipients may lack temporary non-specific immunity that protected against other respiratory viruses.”

“Adverse Events following 12 and 18 Month Vaccinations: a Population-Based, Self-Controlled Case Series Analysis.” Kumanan Wilson, et al. 2011

There are significantly elevated risks of primarily emergency room visits approximately one to two weeks following 12 and 18 month vaccination.

Infant mortality rates regressed against number of vaccine doses routinely given: Is there a biochemical or synergistic toxicity? Neil Z Miller and Gary S Goldman. 2011

“Using the Tukey-Kramer test, statistically significant differences in mean IMRs were found between nations giving 12–14 vaccine doses and those giving 21–23, and 24–26 doses. A closer inspection of correlations between vaccine doses, biochemical or synergistic toxicity, and IMRs is essential.”

Frequency of allergic diseases following measles. E. Kucukosmanoglu, et al. 2006.

The results of this study indicate that findings of allergic disease are less frequent in children with a history of measles.

“The relationship between vaccine refusal and self-report of atopic disease in children”. Rachel Enriquez, PhD. 2005

“Parents who refuse vaccinations reported less asthma and allergies in their unvaccinated children.”

Asthma and vaccination history in a young adult cohort. G. Benke, M. Abramson. 2004

However, subjects reporting full immunisation were found to be at higher risk to asthma (RR 1.52, 95% CI 1.09-2.11) but not atopy. Conclusions: Our results show relatively weak support for the hypothesis that childhood vaccinations may lead to increased risk of asthma, but caution is advised due to possible recall bias.

“Vaccination and Allergic Disease: A Birth Cohort Study” Tricia M. McKeever, PhD, 2004.

“Our univariate analysis showed that exposure to DPPT was associated with an increased risk of developing asthma (hazard ratio [HR] = 14.0; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 7.3, 26.9) and eczema (HR = 9.40; 95% CI = 5.92, 14.92)”

In this observational study analyzing computerized primary care records, we found an association between MMR and DPPT vaccination and the incidence of asthma and eczema, but these associations appeared to be limited to the minority of children who rarely seek care from a GP. This limited association is more likely to be the result of bias than a biological effect.”

[Editor’s Note: when an association is found between vaccination and allergy, it is considered bias, because they are so healthy, because they are unvaccinated, that they do not need to see a doctor.]

Symptoms after accelerated immunisation. Mary E B Ramsay,  1992.

[Editor’s note: Out of 107 infants, had reactions to vaccines that compelled the parents to not continue with the pertussis component of the vaccine:

“Only one of the children had a genuine contraindication to further doses of pertussis vaccine, when he developed a temperature of 40.5°C (104.9 degrees F) on evening 2 after vaccination (measured by the mother). The second child was afebrile but seemed distressed with a high pitched cry on the first evening. Although the crying was neither prolonged nor inconsolable and therefore did not constitute a contraindication to further pertussis vaccine, the mother opted to complete with diphtheria-tetanus only vaccine.”

[Editor’s note: We are told that vaccine reactions are “one in a million” and in this study of 107 infants, 2 reportedly had reactions that warranted caution, and exempted at least one of the infants from further vaccination.]

Confounding in Studies of Adverse Reactions to Vaccines, Paul Fine, 1992.

Most published studies have reported a deficit of sudden infant death syndrome among vaccinees, which may reflect confounding in their study designs. An expression is derived to explore the extent of underestimation that may be introduced in such studies, under different sets of conditions. Confounding of this sort is a general problem for studies of adverse reactions to prophylactic interventions, as they may be withheld from some individuals precisely because they are already at high risk of the adverse event.

Evidence Concerning Pertussis Vaccines and Central Nervous System Disorders, Including Infantile Spasms, Hypsarrhythmia, Aseptic Meningitis, and Encephalopathy, Institute of Medicine (US) Committee to Review the Adverse Consequences of Pertussis and Rubella Vaccines; Howson CP. 1991

The evidence is consistent with a causal relation between  and acute encephalopathy, defined in the controlled studies reviewed as encephalopathy, encephalitis, or encephalomyelitis. 

Anemia of a mild viral infection: the measles vaccine as a model. Olivares M. 1989.

93 infants were immunized with live attenuated measles virus and studied prospectively at 0, 4, 9, 14, 21, and 30 days. Hemoglobin concentration decreased significantly by days 9 and 14. The decrease was greater than 1.0 g/dL in 8.6% and greater than 0.6 in 24.3% of the infants. Of the nonanemic infants, 22% became anemic. 

Aluminum Adjuvant Studies

“Aluminium in brain tissue in autism”. Mold M, Umar D, King A, Exley C. 2018

“The pre-eminence of intracellular aluminium associated with non-neuronal cells was a standout observation in autism brain tissue and may offer clues as to both the origin of the brain aluminium as well as a putative role in autism spectrum disorder.”

 

Aluminium in Brain Tissue in Multiple Sclerosis. Matthew Mold, et al. 2018

The aluminium content of brain tissue in MS was universally high with many tissues bearing concentrations in excess of 10 μg/g dry wt. (10 ppm) and some exceeding 50 ppm. The association of aluminium with corpora amylacea suggests a role for aluminium in neurodegeneration in MS.

Synergism in aluminum and mercury neurotoxicity. Peter N Alexandrov, Aileen I Pogue. 2018

“This is the first report on the neurotoxic effects of aluminum sulfate and/or mercury sulfate on the initiation of inflammatory signaling in human brain cells in primary culture. The effects aluminum+mercury together on other neurologically important signaling molecules or the effects of other combinations of common environmental metallic neurotoxins to human neurobiology currently remain not well understood but certainly warrant additional investigation and further study in laboratory animals, in human primary tissue cultures of CNS cells, and in other neurobiologically realistic experimental test systems.”

“Non-linear dose-response of aluminium hydroxide adjuvant particles: Selective low dose neurotoxicity”. Crépeaux G, et. al. 2017

An unusual neuro-toxicological pattern limited to a low dose of Alhydrogel® was observed. Neurobehavioural changes, including decreased activity levels and altered anxiety-like behaviour, were observed compared to controls in animals exposed to 200μg Al/kg but not at 400 and 800μg Al/kg…..We conclude that Alhydrogel® injected at low dose in mouse muscle may selectively induce long-term Al cerebral accumulation and neurotoxic effects. 

“The putative role of environmental aluminium in the development of chronic neuropathology in adults and children. How strong is the evidence and what could be the mechanisms involved?”. Gerwyn Morris, Basant K. Puri, and Richard E. Frye. 2017

“Exposure to Mercury and Aluminum in Early Life: Developmental Vulnerability as a Modifying Factor in Neurologic and Immunologic Effects.” José G. Dórea. 2015

“Currently, ethylmercury (EtHg) and adjuvant-Al are the dominating interventional exposures encountered by fetuses, newborns, and infants due to immunization with Thimerosal-containing vaccines (TCVs). Despite their long use as active agents of medicines and fungicides, the safety levels of these substances have never been determined, either for animals or for adult humans—much less for fetuses, newborns, infants, and children……More research attention has been given to EtHg and findings have showed a solid link with neurotoxic effects in humans; however, the potential synergic effect of both toxic agents has not been properly studied. Therefore, early life exposure to both EtHg and Al deserves due consideration.”

“Effect of Routine Vaccination on Aluminum and Essential Element Levels in Preterm Infants.” Tammy Z. Movsas 2013

No significant change in levels of urinary or serum aluminum were seen after vaccination. Significant declines were noted postvaccination in serum iron (58.1%), manganese (25.9%), selenium (9.5%), and zinc (36.4%) levels, as was a significant increase in serum copper level (8.0%). A rise in selenium level was the only significant urine change.

[Editor’s note: An increase in post-vaccination serum or urine levels of Aluminum was not detected because Aluminum adjuvants are not excreted, which lends further support to the hypothesis that Aluminum adjuvants bioaccumulate and translocate to other parts of the body, for example, the brain.]

“Mechanisms of aluminum adjuvant toxicity and autoimmunity in pediatric populations”. Tomljenovic L, Shaw CA. 2012

“Autoimmunity following hepatitis B vaccine as part of the spectrum of ‘Autoimmune (Auto-inflammatory) Syndrome induced by Adjuvants’ (ASIA): analysis of 93 cases”. Zafrir Y, Agmon-Levin N, Paz Z, Shilton T, Shoenfeld Y. 2012

Aluminum Adjuvant Linked to Gulf War Illness Induces Motor Neuron Death in Mice, Michael S. Petrik. 2007.

The findings suggest a possible role for the aluminum adjuvant in some neurological features associated with GWI and possibly an additional role for the combination of adjuvants.

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